Latest Current Affairs and General Knowledge

Saturday, April 4, 2020

A ray of hope raised against the coronavirus

A ray of hope raised against the coronavirus

A ray of hope raised against the coronavirus

So far, there is no valid cure for the coronavirus, which has been approved by scientists. However, now a big ray of hope seems to be sparkling. Scientists in Australia have succeeded in eradicating the coronavirus with an anti-parasite drug in the lab.

The wonder of the drug that kills the parasites

Scientists in Australia have eliminated this deadly virus in just 48 hours from a cell infected with the coronavirus in a lab and that too with a drug that already exists. Researchers found that an anti-parasite drug, which already exists in the world, killed the parasite and killed the coronavirus. This is a major breakthrough in the treatment of coronavirus and this can now pave the way for clinical trials.

Corona finished in 48 hours with just one dose of medicine!

According to the report published in the Journal of Antiviral Research, only one dose of a drug called ivermectin can kill all viral RNA, including the coronavirus, in 48 hours. If the infection has affected less than the virus can end in 24 hours. This study has been written by Kylie Wagstaff of Monash University, Australia along with other scientists.

This drug is already used in the treatment of many other viruses

Scientists in the study have said that ivermectin is an anti-parasite drug that works against all viruses such as HIV, dengue, influenza and zika virus. However, Wagstaff has also warned that it has been done in the study lab and it will need to be tested on people.

Wagstaff said, 'Ivermectin is used extensively and is considered a safe medicine. Now we need to see whether its dose is effective in humans (against the coronavirus). Now, this is the next step. '

Scientists believe that the way this drug works on other viruses, it will also work on the corona. In other viruses, this drug first eradicates the effect of the virus in host cells (the cells that were the first to become infected with the infection and spread to other cells).

Just have to wait

Leon Cali of Royal Melbourne Hospital, another co-author of the study, said that she was excited about this possible drug of coronavirus. However, he cautioned that there are still stages of pre-clinical testing and subsequent clinical trials. Ivermectin should be used in the treatment of coronavirus only after the results of these steps.

American scientists claim coronavirus is also spread through speech and breathe.

American scientists claim coronavirus is also spread through speech and breathe.

American scientists claim coronavirus is also spread through speech and breathe.

A high-level panel from the US says that the coronavirus epidemic can spread through breathing and talking. The panel suggested Wednesday that the disease-causing virus is airborne (present in air). It is spreading among people much easier and easier than before.

Scientists say that when people exhale, the virus remains alive in the ultrafine mist produced by it. "The current research is limited, the results of available studies showing the spread of the virus caused by breathing," said Dr Harvey Finberg, chairman of the Standing Committee on Science, Engineering and Medicine, in a letter.

This committee assists the US government in making science and policy decisions related to emerging infectious diseases and other public health hazards. This can explain why the virus is spreading so fast and the proof has also been found, said a virologist. In such a situation, it becomes extremely important to maintain complete lockdown and social distance.

Airborne viruses and bacteria are more contagious and of concern especially in highly populated countries like India. So far, the number of infected with COVID-19 in India has been 2547 while the number of dead has reached 62.

Friday, April 3, 2020

Sangam era - Brief Description

Sangam era - Brief Description

Sangam era - Brief Description

- In South India (the region south of the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers), the period between about three hundred BCE to 300 AD is known as the Sangam period.

- Sangam was a confluence or conference of Tamil poets, which was probably held under the patronage of some chiefs or kings.
- The description of three confluences is found in the eighth century AD. These confluences were granted royal patronage by the Pandya kings.
- These literary works were the earliest examples of Dravidian literature.
- According to Tamil legends, three sangams (congregations of Tamil poets) were held in ancient South India, called Muchchangam.

- The first Sangam is believed to have been held in Madurai. This confluence consisted of deities and great saints. There is no literary text available at this confluence.
- The second Sangam was held at Kapatapuram, the only Tamil grammar book of this Sangam is the Tolkappiyam.
- The third Sangam was also held in Madurai. Most of the texts of this confluence were destroyed. Some of these materials are available as group texts or epics.

Social status of Sangam Era

According to Sangam literature, at this time there was no clear division of the varna system in the society, yet Brahmins had a respectable place in the society. In the Sangam era, only Brahmins could wear Yajnopaveet. People belonging to other sections of the society were known by their provincial origin. 
For example, people of the hill region were known as 'Kutinji', people of the coastal region by 'Nidal' etc. The text of the major castes of this period has been described in detail in a book called 'Tolkappiyam'. According to this book, the major castes of this period were-

- Tudian
- Parayan
- Kadamban
- Panan etc.

Apart from Brahmins, 'Sangam literature' also provides information about the division of the four sections of society. These four classes were - 'Arsar' (a person belonging to the royal family), 'Benigar' (merchant class), 'Ballal' (large segregated class, who were distinguished) and 'Vellar' (working peasant class).

Wedding ceremony

In this era, marriage was considered a sacrament and as in ancient times, there were eight types of marriages. The 'slave system' was not in vogue in the 'Sangam period'. People belonging to the higher and affluent class lived on the upper floor of the buildings built by paved bricks and lime, and business work was done on the lower floor. The buildings were constructed according to classical rules. The situation of the lower class people was very normal.


In the Sangam era, there was the proper practice of education among all sections of the society, which is a great feature of the erstwhile era. The subjects of literature, science, astrology, mathematics, grammar etc. were taught. The teachers were called 'Kanakkatam' and the students were called 'Pillai'. Temples were the main centres of education and the practice of giving guru Dakshina was prevalent. 
Painting or sculpture also developed during this period. Hunting, wrestling, gaming, shooting, poetry, drama, dance, music etc. were the main means of entertainment. One of the major instruments of this time was 'Yal', which was strung.

Woman's place in society

Women had a lower position in society than men. The birth of a girl child was considered inauspicious. Women had no rights in the property. Women were educated and could participate in social rituals. Women were appointed as the king's bodyguards. The wife had a respectable place in the house. The dancing woman was considered inauspicious for the domestic woman. Widows had to abandon the jewellery and turn their heads and the practice of burial with or without the urn was also prevalent. The family used to be patriarchal. 
Women from lower classes used to work in the fields. Some upper-class women, such as 'Owaire' and 'Nuchelier' established themselves as successful poets and women of this class received an education. The situation of the legalists was so much worse that they voluntarily considered it to be "sati" much easier. The practice of voluntary sati was prevalent in the Sangam Society. In the Sangam community, there are mentions of 'Parathiyar' and 'Kanigachar' respectively as the girls and dancers. They lived by prostitution.


According to the Sangam literature, at this time the rank of the king was hereditary, which was based on seniority. It was imperative for the king to be a character, Prajapalak, fair and sober. The Rajya Sabha was called 'Mandai', where judicial functions were performed by the king. During his lifetime, the king used to appoint the crown prince. The crown prince was called 'Komahan' and the other sons were 'Ilengon'. On the death of the king's child, the king was chosen by ministers and subjects. The birthday of the king was celebrated as a festival in this era. The coronation was not practised, but the celebration was held at the time the king was enthroned. The position of poets and scholars in the court was respectable.

State governance

The kings conducted governance work with the help of their advisors. The chief advisors were the priests, vaishyas, astrology and ministers. The assembly of counsellors was called ‘Panchavaraka’. The king also used to assist the spies in conducting governance work. Detectives were called 'orators'. The punishment system was very stringent. The king was the greatest judge. 'Mandai' means Rajya Sabha was the largest court of the state and 'Mannram' was the smallest unit of justice.

Military management

The king had chariots, elephants, horse and four parts of infantry. The weapons which were mainly used by the soldiers were 'Vel' (spear), 'Will' (bow), 'Kol' (arrow), 'Val' (khadag) and 'Kavach' etc. Shilapatas were installed in memory of the martyred soldiers. They were worshipped like deities by making stone idols of warriors who had attained heroism. A special ceremony was held for the armies, in which the generals have conferred the special title of 'Agadi'. Towns and villages were the main units of administration, where the administration was run by the local people's representatives. Municipal administration was administered by an institution called 'Ur'. The village administration was handled under the direction of 'Mannram', 'Podil', 'Ambalaya' and 'Apai'.

Economic condition

Agriculture was the foundation of the country's economic condition. Rice, mustard, sugarcane and cotton etc. were cultivated. At this time irrigation was done through rivers and ponds. The landlord was the main source of income of the state, which used to collect 1/6 of the produce. 
Bhumikar was called ‘Karai’. At that time, the state called 'Pari' was famous for jackfruit and honey, and Chera kingdom for the production of jackfruit, pepper and turmeric. Taxes were also levied on property, port and loot money etc. The tax paid by the feudal and the wealth received by the loot was called 'Durai'. 
The additional tax was also collected from the subjects as required, which was called 'iravu'. Apart from agriculture, textile weaving was the main industry. Uraiyar and Madurai were major centres of the textile industry. In addition to the textile industry, the distribution of rope, making ivory items, shipbuilding, making gold jewellery and extracting pearls from the sea were also done, which strengthened the economic base of the state.


The state of internal and foreign trade was advanced. Internal trade was mainly by the exchange. 'Pandi' was the main means of exchange at this time. Madurai and Puhar were the major trading centres. There was foreign trade from the ports of Puhar and Shalipur. Apart from this, other major ports were 'Gaura', 'Mujirit', 'Nelsida', 'Toshdi' etc. These ports were located on the western coastline of India. Black pepper, masala, ivory, pearl, cotton textiles were exported and imports of copper, tin, liquor etc. were used.

Religious status

At this time Vedic and Brahmin religions were propagated in the society. The Brahmins were seen with respect and were also donated by the king. Yagyas were conducted. Religious works were performed by Brahmins. Jainism and Buddhism were the only prevalent in society. The main worship deity at this time was-

- Vishnu
- Shiv
- Sri Krishna
- Balaram etc.

'Veer Puja' and 'Sati Pooja' were also prevalent in the society. 'Murugan' was the most popular deity of South India. Later, Murugan was called 'Subrahmanyam', and this deity was integrated with Skanda-Kartikeya. Murugan also gets another name 'Whelan'. Whelan belongs to Bel, which means the same. This was the main weapon of this deity. The peasant people used to worship 'Marudam' (Indra). Indra had a special type of worship in the annual festival of Puhar. 'Kaurralai' was the goddess of victory. Skanda-Karthikeya is known as the son of Shiva-Parvati in North India. In the Tamil state, 'cock' is the symbol of Murugan, which likes to play on the mountain top. Murugan was the best deity of Tamils. During the Sangam period, 'Bali' practice was prevalent in Tamil Pradesh. Temples were also arranged for worshipping the deities, which were called ‘Nagar’, ‘Kottam’, ‘Purai’ or ‘Koli’. Although temples existed, religious activities were mostly conducted under open trees.