Latest Current Affairs and General Knowledge

Thursday, July 2, 2020

Saka era

Rashtriya Shake or Saka Samvat is the national calendar of India. It started in 78 years BC. Chaitra 1, 1879 Saka Samvat was duly adopted by it.
  • After 500 AD all the astrological texts written in Sanskrit started using Shak Samvat. There is a different view of why this era got its name. It was run by the Kushan king Kanishka or by some other person, nothing could be said in the end about it. This is a difficult problem which is considered in the very difficult problems of Indian history and timely decisions.
  • Varahamihira has called it Shaka-Kaal and Shaka-Bhupakal.
  • Utpal (circa 966 AD) states in the interpretation of Brihatsamhita - When the Saka king was killed by Vikramaditya, this era lasted. Its years are generally passed and it started with the 'Vasanti equinox' of 78 AD. The oldest inscription, which clearly mentions the Shaka Samvat, is of the 'Chalukya Vallabheshwar', dated 465 Shaka Samvat i.e. 543 AD. The inscriptions of the Kshatrapa kings indicate the number of years, but the name of the Samvat is not, but those numbers are indicative of Saka period, this is generally the opinion of the people. Some people consider Kushan king Kanishka to be the founder of Shaka Samvat.
  • In the later, intermediate and present times, the same thing is in Jyotirvidabharan, the name of Shak Samvat is 'Shalivahana'. But in the form of Samvat, Shalivahana form has come in the inscriptions of 13th or 14th century. It is possible that the name Satavahana became 'Shalavahana' and came to be 'Shalivahana'. 
  • Saptarshi Samvat used in Kashmir is another Samvat, also known as Cosmic Samvat. According to Rajatarangini the cosmic year 24 is equal to the last Shaka Samvat 1070. Centuries are not given in the usage of this era. This is the lunar-solar era and the Pratipada of Chaitra Shukla was written in BC. Started in April 3076.
  • Brihatsamhita mentions a tradition that the Saptarshis have lived in a constellation for a hundred years and were in Aries when Yudhishthira was ruling. Probably this is the origin of circles of hundred years.
  • There were many other Samvatas also, such as Vardhamana, Buddha-Nirvana, Gupta, Chedi, Harsha, Lakshmanasen in Bengal, Kollam or Parashurama in Malavar, which was once very prevalent at least in cosmic life.

Month            Day         Commencement Date (Gregory)

1. Chaitra         30/31                                22 March 
2. Vaisakh          31                                    21 April
3. Jyeshth           31                                    22  May 
4. Aashad            31                                    22 June
5. Shravan           31                                    23 July
6. Bhadrapada    31                                    23 August
7. Ashwin             30                                   23 September
8. Karthik            30                                   23 October
9. Margshirsh     30                                   22 November 
10. Paush             30                                   22 December
11. Magh               30                                   23 January
12. Falgun            30                                   20 February

Monday, June 22, 2020

Bhaktikaal


Bhaktikaal

By the thirteenth century, there was a great mess in the field of religion. The superstitions practised by the Siddhas and Yogis etc. were spreading in the public, even the orthodox class was dominated by stereotypes and hypocrisy. Due to the influence of Mayanism, feelings of public opinion and inaction were beginning to flourish in society. At such a time a huge cultural movement took place across India in the form of Bhakti movement, which established the social and personal values ​​that were eminent in the society.

Bhaktikal is known in Hindi literature from 1375 to 1700. The medieval period of Hindi literature is famous as Bhaktikal. This time is popularly known as Bhaktikal. Bhaktikal is the best era of Hindi literature. The beginning of Bhaktikaal is believed to be from the fourteenth-fifteenth centuries. The best works of Hindi literature and all the best poets have been in this era. There are famous devotees called Alwar Bandhu in the south. Many of these were from lower castes. He was not even educated but was very experienced. The Aalvars were followed by a tradition of Acharyas in the south of which Ramanujacharya was the chief. Ramanand went on to follow in the tradition of Ramanujacharya. Ramanand's personality was extraordinary. He was the greatest maestro of that time. He ended the distinction of high and low in the field of devotion. He made qualified people of all castes his disciples. 

jaati-paanti poochhe nahin koee. 
hari ko bhajai so hari ka hoee.

Ramananda emphasized the worship of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu. Ramananda and his disciples carried the Bhaktiganga of the south to the north. Bhaktidhara started flowing throughout North India. At that time qualified saints and Mahatma devotees emerged all over India.

Mahaprabhu Vallabhacharya established Pushtimarga and propagated the worship of Vishnu to Krishnavatar. The Leela-song spread by Vallabhacharya affected the whole country. The famous poets of Ashtachhap spread the teachings of Vallabhacharya to the masses composed in sweet poetry. After Vallabhacharya, the Madhva and Nimbarka sects also had a profound influence on the public mind. Two other sects of the cultivation area also existed at that time. The saint sect influenced by the yoga path of the Naths, in which Sant Kabirdas is prominent. Sufism of Muslim poets is not very different from the typical Daivatism of Hindus. Some passionate Muslim poets wrote exquisite works steeped in Sufism.

Famous poet

Kabir, Raidas, Nanak, Dadudayal, Sundar Das, Malukdas, Qutaban, Manjhan, Jayasi, Usman, Surdas, Parmanandadas, Kumbhanadas, Nandadas, Hitharivansh, Haridas, Rasakhan, Dhruvadas, Mirabai, Tulsidas, Agradas, Nabedas during the Bhaktikal period With the help of his devotional compositions, he increased the Hindi literature. Even though there may be a difference in the name-form of the worshipers of these poets, the spirit of dedication is present in all.

Poetic streams

Four major poetic streams are found in Bhaktikal:

Gyaanaashrayee shaakha
Premaashrayee shaakha
Krshnaashrayee shaakha
Raamaashrayee shaakha

Both the Gyaanaashrayee shaakha and Premaashrayee shaakha come under the Nirguna sect.

Both the Krshnaashrayee shaakha and the Raamaashrayee shaakha come under the Saguna sect.

Gyaanaashrayee shaakha

Devotees and poets of the Gyaanaashrayee shaakha were nirgunists and worshipped the name. He respected the Guru very much and did not believe in caste differences. He gave importance to individual practices. They used to oppose false pretences and stereotypes. Almost all the saints were illiterate but very rich in terms of experience.

Premaashrayee shaakha

The poetry stream of the Muslim Sufi poets of Premaashrayee shaakha was considered as lovemaking because it was their belief that love meets God. Like God, love is also omnipresent and God can only have a relationship of love with a living being, that is the core of his creations. He has written love sagas. These love songs are composed on the Persian style of masnavis. The language of these gathas is Awadhi and Doha-Chaupai verses are used in them. Despite being Muslim, these poets have written stories related to Hindu life. Without denying, these faqir poets have described divine love through physical love.

Krshnaashrayee shaakha

The Krshnaashrayee shaakha has been the most publicized and disseminated. There have been poets of the highest order in many sects. Among them, there have been great poets like Surdas of Vallabhacharya's confirmation-sect. The positions of Shirdomani devotee-poet Surdas of Vatsalya and Shringaaras have had the greatest influence on the later Hindi literature. Poets of this branch have often written Muktak poetry. The poems of Shri Krishna's child and adolescent form have attracted these poets, so in their poems, there has been a predominance of sweetness over the grace of Shri Krishna. The principal poets of this sect were Surdas, Nandadas, Meera Bai, Hitharivansh, Haridas, Rasakhan, Narottam Das etc. Rahim was of similar time.

Raamaashrayee shaakha

Leela-Purushottam Krishna had an anthem under Raamaashrayee shaakha while Tulsidas, the head poet of Rambhakti branch, meditated Maryada-Purushottam Rama. Therefore, the poet Tulsidas considered Ramchandra to be adorable and with 'Ramcharitmanas', took the Ram Katha from door to door. Tulsidas is considered the best poet of Hindi literature. Tulsidas, the coordinator, had all the qualities of Loknayak. Your Holiness and sweet voice made all the levels of the public beautiful. You wrote Ramkatha in all the languages and verses prevailing at that time. You have done the most important work in the upliftment of the people. Agradas, Nabhadas and Pran Chand Chauhan also fall in this category.
Rama: In the disciple tradition of Ramanujacharya, followers of Sri Ramananda are worshipers of Rama, the incarnation of Vishnu, the incarnation of Lord Rama. Believe in avatarism. His Rama in the form of Parabrahma. They combine modesty, power and beauty. In beauty, they have lost to Tribhuvan. With power, they suppress the wicked and protect the devotees and by virtue, teach the world of ethics. He is Maryadapurushottam and the locker.

Tuesday, June 16, 2020

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (born: 18 February 1486 - Death: 1534) is one of the major saints of Bhaktikal. He laid the foundation of the Gaudiya sect of Vaishnavas. He gave birth to a new style of Bhajan singing and emphasized the goodwill of Hindu-Muslim unity in the days of political instability, taught to remove the feeling of caste-hierarchy, high and low and resettled the extinct Vrindavan and lived his life. The last part of spent there. Regarding Mahaprabhu Chaitanya, good material is available in the book called 'Chaitanya Bhagavata' composed by Vrindavanadas. A short version of the said book was written by Krishnadasa in 1590 under the title 'Chaitanya Charitamrit'. 'Sri Sri Chaitanya-Charitavali' written by Sri Prabhudatta Brahmachari has been published by Geeta Press Gorakhpur.

Introduction

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was born Phalgun Shukla Purnima on 18 February 1486 in a village called Navadwip (Nadia) in West Bengal, which is now called 'Mayapur'. In childhood, he was named Vishwambhar, but everyone called him 'Nimai'. People of Gauravarna were also called 'Gaurang', 'Gaur Hari', 'Gaur Sundar' etc. The foundation stone of the Gaudiya Vaishnava sect was laid by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. The Mahamantra 'Naam Sankirtan' started by him has a very wide and positive impact in the western world today. According to poet Chaitanya 'Chaitanya Chandrodaya', he took initiation from a monk named Keshav Bharti. Some people consider Madhavendra Puri to be his initiation guru. His father's name was Jagannath Mishra and mother's name was Shachi Devi.

Birth date

Subudhi Rai was the ruler of Gaur some before the birth of Chaitanya. He had a Pathan servant named Hussain Khan. King Subudhirai gave him money to do some state work. Hussain Khan equaled the amount after eating and drinking. When King Subudhirai came to know of this, he put a whip on the back of Husain Khan as a punishment. Hussain Khan was irritated. He conspired and removed King Subudhirai. Now Hussain Khan Pathan was the king of Gaur and Subudhirai was his prisoner. Husain Khan's wife told her husband to kill the king to avenge the old insult. But Husain Khan did not do this. He was very sly, forcing the king to cook and bring food from the hand of a Muslim. He knew that after this no Hindu would include Subudhirai in his society. In this way, Husain Khan became Husain Shah leaving Subudhirai 'absolutely free' to spend the day humiliatingly.

Marriage

Nimai (Chaitanya Mahaprabhu) was a prodigious genius from childhood. Also, he was very simple, beautiful and emotional. Everyone was shocked to see the pastimes made by them. At the age of 15–16, he was married to Lakshmi Devi. The wife died of snake bite in 1505. Due to the compulsion of running a dynasty, he was married to Vishnupriya, the daughter of the Rajpandit Sanatan of Navadwip.

Krishna Bhakti

Chaitanya has also been considered by his followers as an incarnation of Krishna. In 1509, when he went to Gaya Nagar in Bihar to perform his father's shraddha, he met a saint named Ishwarpuri there. He asked Nimai to 'Krishna-Krishna'. Since then, his whole life changed and he was absorbed in devotion to Lord Krishna at all times. Due to his unwavering devotion and faith towards Lord Krishna, he became innumerable followers. First of all, Nityananda Prabhu and Advaitacharya Maharaj became his disciples. Both of these gave a rapid impetus to the Bhakti movement of Nimai. Nimai started performing 'Hari Naam Sankirtan' by playing musical instruments and dancing and singing in high tones with the help of these two disciples.