Pahari languages | Latest Current Affairs and General Knowledge

Thursday, November 5, 2020

Pahari languages

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Hill languages ​​are spoken from the east of Kashmir to Nepal in the southern part of the Himalayan ranges. Grierson considered an independent community of Pahari languages ​​while classifying modern Indian Aryan languages. Chatterjee has declared the influence of Prakriti and Apabhramsa languages ​​of Rajasthan on Madraska by considering them as based on Pesachi, Dard or Khas Prakrit. According to a new opinion, the origin of at least Middle Pahari languages ​​is Shaurseni Prakrit, which is also the origin of Rajasthani. The phonology of the Pahari languages, group of voices, grammar etc. have been printed on many ethnic levels. The linguistic features of different castes like Yaksha, Kinnar, Kirat, Nag, Khas, Shaka, Arya etc. can be discovered by trying, in which now the Arya-Aryan elements are mixed here. Historically, it is known that in ancient times, some of their different forms were mostly oral. In the medieval period, this area came in more contact with Rajasthani language speakers and due to the convenience of movement in modern times, Hindi linguistic elements are entering here. In a way, the behaviour of Pahari languages ​​has become limited to domestic speaking, correspondence etc. 
Some of the phonetic features found in the Pahari languages ​​such as the Ghosh Mahapraan are replaced by the sound of a low pitched sound. The name of the western and central hill region was in the ancient times the sampadlaksha. Gurjars and other Rajput people continued to visit here during the medieval period, mainly because of the Muslim invasion. Therefore, in local languages, most of the "n" is targeted instead of "an" and the incipient tendency of non-intransitive words is a sign of Rajasthani influence. Eastern Hindi also has multiple trends in the Middle Pahari languages ​​because the Katyura dynasty here belonged to the King of Suryavanshi Ayodhya. On this basis, the relation of the Pahari languages ​​with the semi-Magadhi-Kshetra also becomes clear. Considering their present form, two elements mainly emerge. One is that they have different characteristics of Pahari languages ​​from the Hindi language. 
Some other elements are similar to both. Somewhere Hindi words are used alternatively with local words and elsewhere Hindi words are taking the place of local words. Some foreign words, such as "hazmat", "asaptal", "fita", "seep", "dagdar", etc. have also been introduced through the Khadi dialect. 

Three distinctions of Pahari languages ​​can be determined:

East hill

It is also called Nepali or "Khaskura". "Gorkhali" is under this. There is enough written literature on it.

Middle hill

They are spoken in Kumaon and Garhwal, hence the names "Kumaoni" and "Garhwali" are famous on this basis. Their areas are the seven Parvatya districts of Uttar Pradesh and their number of speakers is about 16 lakhs.

The Kumaoni language is used in the districts of Nainital, Almora and Pithoragarh. Its area is presently about 8000 square miles and according to the census of 1951, the number of its speakers is about 570,008. Hindi is used as a second language. Due to this, Kumaoni has come very close to the Hindi Khadi dialect. 
Nevertheless, some sounds in Kumaoni are distinctly different from those of Khadi Boli Hindi. From the point of view of the vowels, the sounds Hrasva "Aa", Harsva "A", Harsva "Ae", Harsva "O" and Harsva "Au" can be seen. This distinction has made a difference of semantics. For example, the word "Kawan" (Harsva Aa) means in Kumaoni - "Kala" and "Kava" (long aa) mean "Kaal" - meaning death. Special "N" and special "L" are available in dishes. Words like "kan" (kasta), "bhanan" (utensils) have a distinctive "no" sound which is pronounced towards some rhythm. The special "L" letter is found in the dialects of Gangoli and Kali Kumaon. There are eight dialects of Kumaoni - (1) Khasrajia, (2) Kumayyan, (3) Pachaiyan, (4) Danpuria, (5) Soormali, (6) Shirali, (7) Gangola, (8) Bhotia. The script of the Kumaoni language is Devanagari. Its oral literature is very rich, although written literature is also no less important.

Ancient elements in Garhwali language are still safer than Kumaoni. It is practised in district Garhwal, Tehri, Chamoli, and Uttar Kashi. The area is about 10,000 sq. M and the number of Garhwali speakers are about 1 million. There are traffic difficulties due to geographical reasons. Therefore, features have emerged in linguistic experiments of people living on both sides of the hills or across the same river. Tibetan in the dialects of the north and the Kumauni influence towards the east has become evident because the boundaries of these areas are mixed. Being a residence of Rajput castes, Garhwali not only has an illogical influence, but the south-west facing dialect is also exerting its influence.

Some characteristics of Garhwali language are visual. Its inclination is towards elongation, hence the sounds of A, Ai, O, and Au, which have a long-form predominant, are used more in vowels. The tendencies of resonance are relatively low. There are some words which have come from ancient languages ​​like the word "Gichko" in the meaning of "mouth". It is possible that many of the received words are remnants of the oldest castes. Grammatically, a garish "L" sound is found in Garhwali which is not found elsewhere. In verb forms, the final "a" of the metal is omitted by adding "o" or "ava", such as running. Gender discrimination is also not regular. Much attention is given to the shortness of things, gravity. Many words have the same singular, plural form. The characteristics of the idols "L" and "AN" in the pronunciation are visual. The nine main dialects of Garhwali from localism are - (1) Srinagaria, (2) Salani, (3) Manjhakumaiyan, (4) Gangavariya, (5) Badhani, (6) Rathi, (7) Dasoulia, (8) Lobhiya and ( 9) Rervalty. The main difference seems to be the pronunciation. The oral literature of Garhwali language is also important.

Western hill

This is the third distinction of Pahari languages. In fact, it is the collective name of many dialects. These dialects are spoken in Jonsar Bawar, Shimla, North-Eastern-Frontier Punjab, Kullu Valley, Chamba etc. The literature of all these dialects is not received in writing, due to which the scientific discovery of language has been very less. Till now the bids that can be fixed under it, their area is about 14 thousand square miles and the speakers are usually 16 lakhs. Mains are - (1) Sirmauri, (2) Jaunsari, (3) Kului, (4) Chambali (5) Mandiali and (6) Bhadravahi, etc. Most of the folk songs and stories are popular in these dialects. Some work has been done here on Kului and Chambali.

The region of Kului is, most likely, the area of ​​the ancient Kunind waters that ruled here. Presently this dialect is spoken from Kullu Valley to Mahasu district of Himachal Pradesh. Chambharya is notable for its melodiousness and due to location differences, it also gets "Bhatiyari", "Churahi", etc. variations. Mandiali is spoken in Suket while Badhati is towards Solan. There is a behaviour of Quthali in the foursome of Shimla. Earlier all these dialects of the western hill were written in Takkari script but now Devanagari is used.
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